Neville Brody is an English graphic designer, brand strategist, art director and typographer,borned in 1957. He is one of the best known graphic designers of his generation. He is best known for his succesful works on the Face magazine and Arena magazine between 80’s and 90’s. His artistic additives to the Face, radically changed the way in which other graphic designers and readers approach the medium. His unique design technics became much-inspired and much imitated models for editorial design, advertising and other graphics of eighties and nineties. Apart of the Face and Arena, there are another magazine and newspaper directions such as City Limits, Lei, Per Lui, Actuel, The Guardian and The Observer.
Apart of these, He is also designing record covers. Cabaret Voltaire and Depeche Mode are good examples his cover designs.
If we look at his inspirations, punk rock has an major effect on Brody’s work and motivation which have also affected London life at the end of 70s. Energy of punk is not the only motivation for him, Dadaism and pop art are also important because, it is obviously seen that his first works is based on a comparison between two.
Besides, he also known for his great typefaces and typographic works. He is one of the founding members of Fontworks in London. He has designed a lot of very-well known typefaces and he referred to as a star typographer of his generation. His recent project is redesign of The Times with the creation of a new font which named Times Modern. This typeface shares many similarities with with the Jonathan Hoefler’s Font Mercury and apart of that, its the first new font for the newspaper since 1932. This is the year which they introduced Times New Roman. Other notable fonts of him are, Industria and New Deal which is used for the film Public Enemies.
Nowadays, Brody’s works mostly focuses on electronic communication design. Furthermore, he continues also his unique and well-designed digital typefaces. His contributions to the graphic design world and digital typography is definetely invaluable.
This movement happened between 1990 and 1999. If we look at its birth, it relies upon various causes. Firstly, art movements are conserved. Installations, performances changed the nature of the late 20th century. For instace, there were less paintings. Apart of that, paintings was not enough to explain social cultural background of decade.
Its the end of the bipolar world. A new culture is culture of post national state. There were the flow of cultures, ethnicities etc. So, we can say that 90’s were the age of multiplicities of everything.
Besides, politics always on the agenda in that movement even in installations. Furthermore, 90’s were the era of the civil wars. For example, United States and Irak. Also, these years were Clinton period and most wealthy period ever in America contrast to Russia. Its the period of computers. Internet started to create a new culture. Internet itsel is an ancyclopedia, that is the flow of information. Its not anymore ‘post-modernity’, its ‘new modernity’.
Moreover, its the period of deconstructionism. Modernity, is deconstruction of world-view, ideology and deconstrucitonism is an attempt to understand the ideologies behind the construction.
There was no more single memory, single identity and single language.
Architecture was also deconstructive in that years. There were no one single space anymore. Its more complicated against mathematics. The space itself is very caotic. Vitra Fire Station, Walt Disney Concert Hall, Ordrupgaord Museum and Bmw building were examples of it. Mybe, they are not fuctional but its not the matter of function. Only funtionality is esthetics. This is what contemporary art.
Post-modernizm is a kind of reaction to high modern art, in other words, 60’s art. Movement of minimalism and american abstractionism came to the end so post modernizm started.
It is a kind of ideology and its primarily related to art. The birth of it mostly depends on Irenian Revolution and the cold war because these are phenomenons that effected 20th century very much.
Apart of that, left rise of 60s, 70s finished and 80s, generally witnesses the rise of new right which is ‘conservatism’. This rise related to popular culture industry.
In Polland labour people started to effect all Eastern block countries.
Besides, there was a insufficiency of Soviet Russia, Gorbachov and Bush declared the end of cold war and the Berlin wall fall down. Especially end of the cold war is very important for this movement because it means end of centralism which causes end of fordist production. Plurality began and very solid, controlled things finished. This also means opening of the borders. Notion of border shows the emphasis putting geography rather than history. That means more liberalism. History was very conservative. Geography means present. Technology developed quickly; like mobile telephones, internet, fax machines.
To sum up, all these events brought the end of modernity and it triggered the start of the post modernism.
Actually, Post Modernism has three basic theories.Firstly, Frederic Jameson’s cultural logic of late capitalism, Francoise Lyotard’s end of grand narratives and finally, Jean Baudrillard’s simulations.
David Carson is one of the best graphic designers in Usa. He is very well known for his innovative magazine design. Usage of typography in his works are in a extreme form. He was the editor of the Ray Gun magazine for quite a some time. The magazine was about types of alternative music but Carson added many types of designs to the magazine which carried it out to another level, more than being a regular music magazine.
He used a style that is called dirty which challenged regular styles of typography, ı must say that it is hard to understand sometimes. Through out the nineties he influenced many graphic designers. Many other artists from other branches of art also appreciated his art. Photographer Albert Watson, for example, declared, “He uses type the way a painter uses paint, to create emotion, to express ideas.” Others felt that the fractured presentation obscured the message it carried.
Carson himself was a very self aware designer. “He describes himself as a “hands-on” designer and has a unique, intuition-driven way of creating everything from magazines to TV commercials.” He won tons of awards as a result of his contributions to graphic design world. He also took some time to pass his knowledge to other generations and wrote books including The End of Print (with Lewis Blackwell), Trek: David Carson, Recent Werk, The Rules of Graphic Design.
He worked with many important companies and individuals, American Express, AT&T, Atlantic Records, Budweiser, CNN, Levi’s, MTV, Sony, Toyota, Warner Bros and Xerox are just few of them. He is also recognized as a lecturer as he travels around the Europe to speak in the seminars.
Bradbury Thompson was undisputably one of the most important role-models of 20th century graphic design world. He received three major design awards which is National Society of Art Dir derectors as Art Director of the Year in 1950, AIGA Gold Medal in 1975 and finally The Art Directors Hall of Fame award in 1977. He is one of the rare art directors who have the chance of receiving all three.
If we look at his career briefly, he worked at the Rogers-Kellogg-Stillson printing firm as art director and then Mademoiselle magazine, after he designed for Westwaco Corporation. He designed a new alphabet which is Alphabet 26 and he started his teaching career at Yale University.
His career was full of achievements but three of them truely shows us his sophitication. After he bacame of the designer of Westvaco Inspirations which was a promotional magazine, he reached thousands of typographer, print buyers and student. He had an extraordinary ability to combine and mix modernist typography with classic typefaces and historic illustrations.
Another success came with the publication of The Washburn College Bible, This was the most gigantic and reformist reevaluation of bible typography since Gutenberg’s edition. He wrote it with Jan Tschichold’s typeface Sabon and he covered chapter openings with gorgeous reproductions of painting referring biblical stories.
A third area of interest which brings him a success is contemporary postage stamp design. A large part oh his designes become symbolic snapshots of American history and culture. He had more than 90 stamps of his own and also he became the guide of U.S Postal Service for designing many others.
Bradbury Thompson died in 1995 as one of the most appreciated and impressive graphic designers of the 20th century.
Alexey Brodovitch was an artist, graphic designer, photographer, art director and teacher but beyond everything else, he was a aesthetic entity whose permanet influence was perceived along the entire visual arts. He is remembered today as a art director of Harper’s Bazaar.
He played an important role for introducing ‘modern’ graphic design into the United States. He formed a backbone of modern magazine design and he encouraged the development of an expressionistic, nearly primal style of picture taking style which became the dominant style in 1950’s. Apart of these, as a teacher, he created a generation of designers who have visual freshness and immediacy.
If we look at his style, generous usage of white space is the most important characteristic of the Brodovitch style.His colleagues at other magazines saw his designs totally elegant but a waste of precious space.
In the layouts which is created by him, there are clothes floated on the page, surrounded by white spaces while headlines and type completed them with a good harmony.
He was the first art director who integrated image and text while most of the american magazines used text and illustration seperately be dividing them by white margins at that time.He emphasized the fluency and movement of the images by repetition and diagonal and horizontal stress.
Other important characteristic of his designs is cropped photographs. He cropped photographs often off-center and put them to the edge of pages and integrated them in the whole. By this way images were seem like a frozen moment in the time and this brought a new dynamism to the fashion layouts.
Today, Brodovitch’s heritance is noteworthy rich. His layouts are perceived as models of graphic intelligence and inspiration.
Leiden is not a very well known place today but in 1917 it was very signifigant when architect and painter Theo van Deosburg formed a new movement there; The De Stilj a Dutch art movement which means “the style”. Of course Deosburg was not alone while forming this movement. Architect JJP Oud, designer Gerrit Rietveld,Vordemberge Gildewart,the sculptor Vantongerloo,Bart van der Leck and the painter Mondrian were some of the most important co founders.
De Stijl became the central idea of Mondrian’s paintings. While constantly and efficently using this art movement Mondrian used a new series of words to define De Stijl. Neo Plasticism term is used by the painter for the first time in the history of De Stijl. This type of art is considered as abstract among artistic communities that is also one of the reasons that ‘the new plasic art’ is a little hard to produce and understand by regular people. Publishing a magazine between 1917 and 1932 helped people to understand insights of this movement and cleared society about the theories and general qualites of this newly born form of art. Philosphy is used as a side branch to support new plastic art movement. This new form of art was so sucessful that quickly spread to other branches of art such as town architecture,fine and applied arts.
Artists of the movement was also abstract and renovalsitic; they carried this movement beyond geography and politics. The art pieces are deliberatly composed and formed depersonalized to make them universal. The idea of ‘The one should see the art not the artist’ was their centerlized aim. To simplify their works they reduced the numbers of colors that are used, they only used main colors along with black and white. The geometrical shapes and sharp assimetric designs were also frequently used while creating a piece.
To define the term ‘Futurism’ there are basically two words which are ‘speed and movement’. This is uniquely italien movement. Futurists are nationalists and political ideology of nationalism is Fascism. It was reactionary, especially reaction to more developed countries, technically, progressive, politicaly and populist movement which belongs to the right wing.It is the denial of everything like cubism, symbolism, vogueness, love of complication, the bohemienne life, decadance, degeneration and passivity which argues that the artist should be politic. The enrichment of new beauty is beauty of speed. Most important piece is Winged Victory Samothrace or Nike of Samothrace. The most important names of that movement are Boccioni who have late impressionistic style and the other one is Giacoma Balla.
Futurism was uniquely italien movement like ı said in the beginning but after Russians came up with Cubo-Futurism which can be described as a combination of French Cubism and Italian Cubism. There is so many important artists who take a place in that movement like Kasimir Malevich, Vladimir Tatlin, El Lissitzky, and Rodchenko.
If we analyse Malevich works, we can see that he often uses huge massive volumes like huge cubes and these are coming from the source of futurism in general. El Lissitzky’s works are also tribute cubism in general but apart of these, its more dynamic, very analytical and he uses very impressive colors. Rodchenko’s works have political content differently from others. They have dynamism of revolutionary years, expressive, solide, readable and functional.
The early 20th century, artists started to use the ‘new’ in a new sense. Something independently devoted to invention new. Artists qualified themselves unsuccesfull bourgeois taste.
According to this movement, art should be something radical, talks intelligence and it should be an object of mind and knowledge. It can be assumed a radical break. Its revolutionary. Its also the age of politics. For instance, in 1911 there was Chinese revolution, in 1917 there was Russian revolution and in 1923 there was Turkish revolution. From 1900 to 1930, modernizm in art started by Picasso, by cubizm and various artists in avant-gardeism.
Paris was still the heart of art but the heart of the Avant-Garde was Europe.
In Italy, there are Futurism (1919); in Russia, there are Suprematism (1915) and constructivism (1917); in Zurich and Paris, there are Dadaism and in Germany, there is Bauhaus (1919). I want to mention them all briefly.
Futurism is something extremely new. It gives us the spirit of future. Suprematism is an art movement focused on fundemental geometric forms which founded by Kasimir Malevich. Constructivism is a theory of knowledge that argues that humans generate knowledge and meaning from an interaction between their experiences and their ideas. Dadaism is a rejection o cubism and all types of art. It is the french word of hobby-horse. This movement also against bourgeoise taste, nationalism, war, reason and logic that conveyed to the war. İt contains collage, photomontage, assemblage and readymades. To sum up, aim of Dadaism is to destruct existing art styles. The founding father is Marcel Duchamp.
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec is a French painter, draughtsman, print maker and illustrator who borned in 1864. He is one of the most well-known artist of the Post-impressionist period because of his contributions to the development of Art Nouveau in the 1890s.
He had captured the spirit and of the “beautiful era” in Paris, through his posters and illustrations.He is known for his noteworthy images of performers in the centers of Parisian entertainment in the 1880s and 1890s, especially the café-concerts and cabaret nightclubs in Montmartre. He has become famous especially as the bohemian artist of the Moulin Rouge.
He accomplished this with the radical use of broad flat colors, strong silhouettes, and unusual points of view. Toulouse-Lautrec was strongly influenced by the Japanese prints discovered during this time and incorporated Japanese design elements in works. Also, Toulouse-Lautrec incorporated into his own individual stylistic elements from various contemporary artists, especially the French painter Edgar Degas.